Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Australian Life :: essays research papers

Australian Life Life in the Bush The Australian life style was portrayed as one of the bushman although it was not . The life of a typical Australian was really the city life . The bushman was one with no classes and he treated every person as equal . A middle class person was the same as a working class man . The bushman was a very trust worthy and helpful character he would help a stranger as if it was his friend and if that friend needed anything he would be glade to ofer him every thing he has . The bushman lead gypsy like lifestyle with the constant moving and roaming round the country side . They would often walk or ride horse back from place to place with their tent and billy and camp out over night when they had no where to stay . The bushman where very much like aborigines they tracked and did not need a compass or a map they knew plants and trees . They called this bushcraft . A bushman would cook , clean , wash his cloths and patch his pants this made them very independent . If a bushman was ordered or commanded he would say " Are you talking to me or the dog ? " they treated everyone equal and wanted to be treated equal . They dressed in tweeds , flannel tops , with blue jumpers in the cold and yellow oilskin jackets in the rain . They wore hard wearing blucher boots and broad felt hats . The bushman would often have a drinkdown the pub . They often told stories to each other as their past time . The bushmans homes were made from slabs of bark , green hide . The houses were simple and didn't always show advantage . Nor dose it have to , the bushman's home (bellow) is there to shelter him . In the 1880's writers and painters portrayed the bush life as better then the city life . This bought on the image that all Australians lived in the bush . City Life The city life of Australia was not recognized as much as the bush life although most of the population of Australia were present in the cities . The cities in the mid 1880's were walking cities only the few wealthy were able to afford the private horse-drawn transport . The wealthy with their transport were therefore able to live out side of the city center . The working class worked and played short distances away from home . Australian Life :: essays research papers Australian Life Life in the Bush The Australian life style was portrayed as one of the bushman although it was not . The life of a typical Australian was really the city life . The bushman was one with no classes and he treated every person as equal . A middle class person was the same as a working class man . The bushman was a very trust worthy and helpful character he would help a stranger as if it was his friend and if that friend needed anything he would be glade to ofer him every thing he has . The bushman lead gypsy like lifestyle with the constant moving and roaming round the country side . They would often walk or ride horse back from place to place with their tent and billy and camp out over night when they had no where to stay . The bushman where very much like aborigines they tracked and did not need a compass or a map they knew plants and trees . They called this bushcraft . A bushman would cook , clean , wash his cloths and patch his pants this made them very independent . If a bushman was ordered or commanded he would say " Are you talking to me or the dog ? " they treated everyone equal and wanted to be treated equal . They dressed in tweeds , flannel tops , with blue jumpers in the cold and yellow oilskin jackets in the rain . They wore hard wearing blucher boots and broad felt hats . The bushman would often have a drinkdown the pub . They often told stories to each other as their past time . The bushmans homes were made from slabs of bark , green hide . The houses were simple and didn't always show advantage . Nor dose it have to , the bushman's home (bellow) is there to shelter him . In the 1880's writers and painters portrayed the bush life as better then the city life . This bought on the image that all Australians lived in the bush . City Life The city life of Australia was not recognized as much as the bush life although most of the population of Australia were present in the cities . The cities in the mid 1880's were walking cities only the few wealthy were able to afford the private horse-drawn transport . The wealthy with their transport were therefore able to live out side of the city center . The working class worked and played short distances away from home .

Monday, January 13, 2020

Evidences and Reflections of an Artist

Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1610) was more than the greatest sculptor of the Baroque period. He was also an architect, painter, playwright, composer and theater designer. A brilliant wit and caricaturist, he wrote comedies and operas when not carving marbles as easily as clay. More than any other artist, with his public foundations, religious art, and designs for St. Peter’s, he left his mark on the face of Rome (Strickland and Boswell, 1992). â€Å"The Ecstasy of St. Theresa† and â€Å"Apollo and Daphne† are evidences of Bernini’s outstanding skills.Bernini’s marble sculpture, â€Å"The Ecstasy of St. Theresa†, represented the saint swooning on a cloud with an expression of mingled ecstasy and exhaustion on her face. Since the Counter Reformation Church stressed the value of its members reliving Christ’s passion, Bernini tried to induce an intense religious experience in worshipers (Strickland and Boswell, 1992). On the other hand, few works in the history of sculpture are more admired for the sheer skill of their carving than Bernini’s â€Å"Apollo and Daphne†.Bernini began the â€Å"Apollo and â€Å"Daphne† in 1622 and had largely completed it by 1624, the last year of his employment with Cardinal Scipione Borghese. The â€Å"Apollo and Daphne† has come to stand as the perfect antithesis to the modernist principle of â€Å"truth to materials†, the ultimate illustration of the artist defying his medium’s very nature (Sofaer, 2007). For both works, Bernini used all the resources of operatic stagecraft, creating a total artistic environment (Strickland and Boswell, 1992). Being able to observe Bernini’s extraordinary skills in art is a truly noteworthy and significant experience.Just watching his works through the video made me feel the ecstasy, the pursuit and the love contained within those works. Somehow, it makes me want to sculpt a masterpiece of my own, reflec ting my own skill and my own knowledge. Michaelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio’s (1571-1610) genius resided in his ability to overlay one principle upon another, to cross aesthetic boundaries seamlessly while seldom calling attention to the means by which he did so. Moreover, even when he was painting the human figure, Caravaggio was a still-life painter at heart.Caravaggio’s â€Å"Basket of Fruit† has been dated by modern scholars to the years 1593 to 1600, with most placing it closer to the end than the beginning of the first phase of his career. If indeed datable to the moment of his emergence as a public painter in the Contarelli Chapel, the little picture was not one of the realistic depictions of â€Å"flowers and fruit†. Coming at a critical juncture in his professional career, one can imagine the â€Å"Basket of Fruit† serving as a polemical expression of his ideas on the nature of creativity itself.In this work, he blended the lowly method of Ligozzi’s mimetic and didactic illustrations with higher-minded emulations of ancient literary and visual sources, prompted perhaps by his awareness of the current fashion for Northern still-life painting among collectors like Del Monte himself (Varriano, 2006). In the first Roman years, Caravaggio was isolated. He was rushed to hospital for a malaria attack, as witnessed in the famous self-portrait â€Å"Sick Bacchus† in the Galleria Borghese (Pomella, 2004). The â€Å"Sick Bacchus† is a meditation on the theme of â€Å"love’s sting†, that is, on the woes of love gone awry.During the Baroque, the awareness of point of view led, for the first time in Western history, to something which can be considered today as self-reflection, a self-consciousness of the human individual (Bal, 1999). Studying â€Å"The Incredulity of Saint Thomas’, also known as â€Å"Doubting Thomas†, it may come as no surprise to learn that Caravaggio failed to w in the commission to paint a resurrection for the Jesuits. By the time he had completed this painting, Caravaggio’s notion of a â€Å"religious† image had already worried Counter-Reformation churchmen.His reputation for painting in a style which has neither sacred, nor profane, but a hybrid of the two, had attracted uneasy commentary among potential ecclesiastical patrons. In this respect, the â€Å"Incredulity of St. Thomas† might almost be read as gauntlet thrown in the face of counter-reformation orthodoxy. This works is an evidence for Caravaggio’s decision to explore the central mystery of the Christian faith, the incarnation and the resurrection, with what might, tendentiously, be termed an almost Protestant literal-mindedness (Porter, 1997).To be able to understand the personality of Caravaggio through his works, as observed from the video, is an unforgettable occurrence for me. It had shown me that sometimes, there are certain things which artists have to do that defies the society and still, defines them as a whole individual or as a skilled artist. It also made me understand that most of the time, the paintings or artworks do not simply show particular sceneries or another model, but reflects the skills, personality and visions of the creator itself. References Bal, M. (1999). Quoting Caravaggio: Contemporary Art, Preposterous History.Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Pomella, A. (2004). Caravaggio: Art Courses. ATS Italia Editrice. Porter, R. (1997). Rewriting the Self: Histories from the Renaissance to the Present. New York: Routledge. Sofaer, J. (2007). Material Identities. Australia: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Strickland, C. and J. Boswell. (1992). The Annotated Mona Lisa: A Crash Course in Art History from Prehistoric to Post-modern. Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing. Varriano, J. (2006). Caravaggio: The Art of Realism. Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Analysis Of Medea And All My Sons - 1974 Words

The literary pieces that I chose for my Final Project, I am the classic play written by Euripides, Medea by Euripides constructed in 431 B.C. and All My Sons written by Arthur Miller in 1947. The propose of this paper is to analyze the classical work of Medea and the contemporary work, All My Sons, for their particular storytelling components, themes and the assessment and narrative choices that the authors utilized as it connects to the literary convention of their time period. In addition, I will discuss the likenesses and differences of these two plays with respects to characterization, narrative choices, themes, and literary conventions. CLASSIC WORK Medea of Euripides is an ancient Greek tragedy drama play written by Euripides,†¦show more content†¦She was a powerful and dynamic character in a time when strong women were not depicted in Greek culture. Medea was an unconventional woman in ancient Greek times, and it was uncharacteristic for females in Athenian society to be a heroine and focal point. Medea, the protagonist, was the daughter of Aeetes of Colchis, she was driven by passion and committed horrendous crimes for the love of Jason. Euripides characters are a relatively flat character, and they do not change dramatically throughout the play. The character Medea is cynical, wicked, scheming and unlike any other heroine in ancient times, she blames Jason for her predicament and seeks out revenge against everything that he loved. The opening act takes place in the setting outside of Jason and Medea home in Corinth, Medea standing outside irradiates to the Chorus how Jason victimized her and deserted the family. Like other plays in Greek history, the play included The Chorus which was comprised of the women from Corinth; the there role was to converse with Medea and evoke sympathy for her character. The Nurse, Chorus, and Medea give a history of Medea and Jason’s relationship, and the inciting incidence begins. Medea describes how she is distraught and shattered because she sacrificed everything for Jason, yet he is leaving her and their two sons to marry Glauce. Being exiled from Corinth, Medea persuades Creon the King to letShow MoreRelatedMedea Plot Analysis1392 Words   |  6 PagesMedea is an ancient Greek tragedy play written by Euripides. The play bases itself on the ancient myth of Jason and Medea. The plays plot centers itself on the actions of Medea who was the Barbarians former prince who seeks revenge against Jason who betrayed her with another woman. Considered as one the best work produced by Euripides, the play has earned the writer several awards including the Dionysian festival awards in 431BCE (Williamson 1) Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discussRead More Contrasting Gender Differences in in Medea versus Wide Sargasso Sea1722 Words   |   7 PagesGender Differences in in Medea versus Wide Sargasso Sea Stereotypical attributes traditionally associated with women, such as having a propensity to madness, or being irrational, frivolous, dependent, decorative, subordinate, scheming, manipulative, weak, jealous, gossiping, vulnerable and deceitful were common in the times relevant to both works, i.e. Ancient Greece and in the 19th and early 20th Century. Masculine attributes in Euripides time were more along the lines of being valiant, heroicRead MoreThe Tragic Women Of Tragedy985 Words   |  4 Pagescharacterize women as unstable and dangerous. Agave, Antigone, and Medea are all undoubtedly the driving force behind the tragic action in these plays. It is their choices that lead to the pain and death of the people around them. Through an examination of the evidence from three separate works, Antigone, The Bacchae, and The Medea, the role of women in ancient Greek tragedy becomes clear. The actions of Agave, Antigone, and Medea repeatedly prove their characters instability and danger. Agave inRead MoreSatire in the Tragedies of Euripides1443 Words   |  6 Pagesinterpretation of Euripides satire is not inclusive, there is many examples of it throughout his plays. The focus of this analysis is limited to only a handful of the 18 or 19 plays of Euripides that survive today, and is limited to correctly interpreting the ideas and understanding how they correlated to satire. Appropriately, I think the first look at Euripides brand of satire should be from Medea as translated by John Davie. It is important to understand that this play is being interpreted, because this wasRead More Importance of the Tutor in Electra1623 Words   |  7 Pagesgeometrically they form a nearly perfect spread from beginning to middle to end. With each of these appearances the Tutor sets in motion some critical aspect of the plot, thus making himself an agent of another of Aristotles notions: But most important of all is the structure of the incidents. For Tragedy is an imitation, not of men, but of an action and of life, and life consists in action. The Tutor truly drives the action of this play, functioning as a glue to hold the plot together and as a catalystRead MoreEssay on Analysis of Aeschylus Agamemnon4499 Words   |  18 PagesAnalysis of Aeschylus Agamemnon Characters- The Watchman Clytaemnestra The Herald Agamemnon Cassandra Aegisthus The Chorus 1). The Watchman: †¢ The watchman sets the time and place for the play (Agamemnon’s palace in Argos, the house of Atreus); he describes the many miserable nights he has spent on the rooftop of the palace watching for the signal fires that will herald the fall of Troy. †¢ The watchman is one Aeschylus’s small characters, but like the herald he serves anRead MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s The Tempest 2603 Words   |  11 PagesMeasuring a Life in a Drama When many people think of William Shakespeare, they think of plays like Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth or Hamlet. One of the most influential plays written by Shakespeare is not one listed above. The play that reflects the life and all of Shakespeare?s plays is The Tempest. This work was and still is influential in both America, Britain and around the world. Although William Shakespeare was an influential writer in American and British literature, The Tempest reaches beyond a comparisonRead MoreCleanth Brookss Essay Irony as a Principle of Structure9125 Words   |  37 Pagespremises and implications. It will in any case be obvious to the reader that the present writer upholds the validity of their content. Secondly, a detailed analysis of Rosa Luxemburg’s thought is necessary because its seminal discoveries no less than its errors have had a decisive influence on the theories of Marxists outside Russia, above all in Germany. To some extent this influence persists to this day. For anyone whose interest was first aroused by these problems a truly revolutionary, Communist

Friday, December 27, 2019

Converting Cubic Meters to Liters (m3 to L)

Cubic meters and liters are two common metric units of volume. There are three typical ways to convert cubic meters (m3) to liters (L). The first method walks through all the math and helps explain why the other two work; the second completes an immediate volume conversion in a single step; the third method demonstrates just how many places to move the decimal point (no math required). Key Takeaways: Convert Cubic Meters to Liters Cubic meters and liters are two common metric units of volume.1 cubic meter is 1000 liters.The simplest way to convert cubic meters to liters is to move the decimal point three places to the right. In other words, multiply a value in cubic meters by 1000 to get the answer in liters.To convert liters to cubic meters, you simply need to move the decimal point three places to the left. In other words, divide a value in liters by 1000 to get an answer in cubic meters. Meters to Liters Problem Problem: How many liters are equal to 0.25 cubic meters? Method 1: How to Solve m3 to L The explanatory way to solve the problem is to first convert cubic meters into cubic centimeters. While you might think this is just a simple matter of moving the decimal point of 2 places, remember this is volume (three dimensions), not distance (two). Conversion factors needed 1 cm3 1 mL100 cm 1 m1000 mL 1 L First, convert cubic meters to cubic centimeters. 100 cm 1 m(100 cm)3 (1 m)31,000,000 cm3 1 m3since 1 cm3 1 mL1 m3 1,000,000 mL or 106 mL Next, set up the conversion so the desired unit will be cancelled out. In this case, we want L to be the remaining unit. volume in L (volume in m3) x (106 mL/1 m3) x (1 L/1000 mL)volume in L (0.25 m3) x (106 mL/1 m3) x (1 L/1000 mL)volume in L (0.25 m3) x (103 L/1 m3)volume in L 250 L Answer: There are 250 L in 0.25 cubic meters. Method 2: The Simplest Way The previous solution explains how expanding a unit to three dimensions affects the conversion factor. Once you know how it works, the simplest way to convert between cubic meters and liters is simply to multiply cubic meters by 1000 to get the answer in liters. 1 cubic meter 1000 liters so to solve for 0.25 cubic meters: Answer in Liters 0.25 m3 * (1000 L/m3)Answer in Liters 250 L Method 3: The No-Math Way Or, easiest of all, you could just move the decimal point 3 places to the right. If youre going the other way (liters to cubic meters), then you simply move the decimal point three places to the left. You dont have to break out the calculator or anything. Check Your Work There are two quick checks you can do to make sure you performed the calculation correctly. The value of the digits should be the same. If you see any numbers that werent there before (except zeros), you did the conversion incorrectly.1 liter 1 cubic meter. Remember, it takes a lot of liters to fill a cubic meter (a thousand). A liter is like a bottle of soda or milk, while a cubic meter is if you take a meter stick (approximately the same distance as how far apart your hands are when you stretch your arms out to your sides) and put it into three dimensions. When converting cubic meters to liters, the liters value should be a thousand times more. Its a good idea to report your answer using the same number of significant figures. In fact, not using the right number of significant digits may be considered a wrong answer!

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Tragedy Of King Lear By William Shakespeare - 1671 Words

In the eyes of many, the world might appear to entail solely happiness and prosperity. Beyond the oblivion is arguably a more practical depiction of real life, filled with cold truths and merciless mistakes. Few figures in history have captured this essence of reality to such a high degree as Aristotle, a revolutionary thinker whose ideas shaped Greek tragedy. Within his theory of tragedy is the concept of the tragic hero, whose great, ironic flaw leads to his own downfall. The tragic hero is of an elevated position in society but should, all the same, be a character with whom the audience can relate. The hero undergoes a massive revelation and experiences dramatic enlightenment. The tragedy of King Lear, written by William Shakespeare, illustrates the story of a proud and self-centered king, whose obtuse judgement shapes his demise. Lear’s impulsive actions catalyze a chain of events, inspiring emotion from the characters and the audience alike. On the surface, King Lear fits the description of Aristotle’s tragic hero. Discrepancies in Lear’s tale, however, contradict the idea of an idyllic relationship between Lear and the philosophies of Aristotle. Lear’s faults correspond to those of the audience, but their extremity proves to be unique. One might think King Lear becomes cognizant of his decisions, but his fall to insanity acts in conflict. The lack of catharsis in King Lear also precipitates the build-up of negative sentiment. Although King Lear is meant to beShow MoreRelatedThe Tragic Tragedy Of William Shakespeare s King Lear1014 Words   |  5 Pagesfaces are just a few of the physical signs of truly reaching an audience following a tragic drama. A purging of emotion that inspires fear and pity is what the ancient Greeks called, catharsis. William Shakespeare was a master of catharsis, as was evident in many of his tragedies. Many of these tragedies ended with the majority of characters, including the main protagonist meeti ng their death. The unfortunate heroes of these dramas helped the audience feel catharsis through what is known as theirRead MoreTheme Of Tragedy In Shakespeares King Lear993 Words   |  4 PagesTragedy is one of the most common topics throughout literature. This theme can be found in many works of literature spanning from Biblical archives to more recent works in Blockbuster movies, and is commonly found in almost all societies today. The theme of tragedy is so universal that it is found in many of Shakespeare’s plays and poems (e.g. Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and plenty of other works). In specific, tragedy is found in one of William Shakespeare’s most popular plays named King Lear. KingRead MoreElements Of Tragedy In King Lear1627 Words   |  7 Pagesyears, William Shakespeare creates a name for himself as a master of intertwining pathos in his plays by effectively evoking pity from readers. The literary device of a double plot efficiently amplifies the emotions within a play. With the aid of the paralleling plots between Gloucester and his two sons and King Lear and his three daughters, Shakespeare effectively uses pathos to introduce elements of tragedy in King Lear. Through the parallels between the betrayal of Gloucester’s son and King Lear’sRead MoreEssay on Importance of Nothing in Shakespeares King Lear592 Words   |  3 PagesImportance of Nothing in William Shakespeares King Lear    The Tragedy of King Lear has many important themes. One major theme concerns nothing. The main focus around the discussion of nothing is that nothing is a many things. Nothing is what binds everything. The first mention of nothing is when King Lear asks his daughters to profess how much they love him. The eldest daughters shower compliments upon him tickling his ears. Yet the Lears favorite daughter Cordelia will onlyRead More Tragedy Through Misreading in William Shakespeares King Lear975 Words   |  4 PagesTragedy Through Misreading in William Shakespeares King Lear Shakespeare’s tragedy, King Lear, portrays many important misconceptions which result in a long sequence of tragic events. The foundation of the story revolves around two characters, King Lear and Gloucester, and concentrates on their common flaw, the inability to read truth in other characters. For example, the king condemns his own daughter after he clearly misreads the truth behind her â€Å"dower,†(1.1.107) or honesty. Later, GloucesterRead MorePlot Development in Shakespeares Plays Essay505 Words   |  3 Pagespoetical work often consists in the harmonious blending of these two elements. The plays King Lear and Much Ado About Nothing are two of Shakespeares plays that display these two elements well. King Lear and Much Ado About Nothing are very different, but also very much alike when it comes to the overall plot summary. King Lear is a story that is full of tragedy, betrayal and sadness. This play begins with King Lear trying to split his land up between his three daughters. In this process he ends ofRead More Essay on Imagery in King Lear782 Words   |  4 PagesImagery in King Lear   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the immense amount of writing that William Shakespeare had done in his career as a playwright and or writer in general there are bound to be some consistencies and reoccurring themes that make his writing so popular and interesting.   In many cases it is hard to tell whether the thematic structure that many writers follow is intentional or not, but it is possible that there is a reasoning for a specific kind of imagery that a writer likes to outline his/herRead MoreThe Death Of A Man Of High Power1241 Words   |  5 Pagesappalled. However, in William Shakespeare’s King Lear ¬, justice is not equitably administered. Defined as a â€Å"story of human actions producing exceptional calamity and ending in the death of a man of high power,† (Bradley), King Lear must be considered one of the most heart-wrenching Shakespearean tragedies ever written. It’s degradation of honourable individuals through a plot line that demonstrates betrayal and the needless deaths of virtuous people proves that this Shakespearean tragedy supports the themeRead MoreKing Lear and the Genre of Tragedy Essay960 Words   |  4 PagesA tragedy is a genre typically defined as a play that deals with a series of events that lead to the downfall of the hero. Written between 1604 and 1606, ‘King Lear’ falls into the genre of tragedy, depicting the destruction and downfall of the main character (Abrams). The play centres on Lear, an aging king who, in his retirement, decides to divide his kingdom between his three daughters while retaining the title and privileges of being king. However, King Lear’s actions lead to the destructionRead MoreA Comparison Between the Plots of King Lear and Much Ado about Nothing910 Words   |  4 Pagesstatement to say that William Shakespeare wrote some of the greatest plays of all time. This is accepted by everyone from high schoolers to experts as fact. But everyone is a lways wondering, what makes them great? Well, at the heart of every great Shakespeare play is a well written plot. But how can one man churn out all these plays he’s written, and still have new content in each one? Aren’t they all the same story to some extent? As Lindsay Smith writes, â€Å"Many Shakespeare plays, like most typical

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Analysis Of A Qualitative Research In Nursing Practice †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Analysis Of A Qualitative Research In Nursing Practice. Answer: Introduction Critique of journal articles is important for nurses for bringing improvement in their practice. Insights from research articles are to be applied in practice as best available evidence. The present report is critical analysis of a qualitative research article relevant to nursing practice. The article presented by Broadbent et al., (2014) investigates the implications of emergency department triage environment on triage practice for patients presented with mental illness. The article had been published inAustralasian Emergency Nursing Journal, which is the official journal of the College of EmergencyNursing Australasia (CENA) (journals.elsevier.com, 2017). The journal has recognized credibility since it is internationally peer-reviewed. Further, the authors are doctoral degree holders from reputed schools of nursing, rendering integrity to the article. Background According to Jelinek et al., (2013) Australian emergency departments (ED) are the first line of care services that patients with mental illness have access to. Considering this fact, initiatives have been taken for bringing improvements in the provision of mental health service in EDs in Australia. Nevertheless, there is no certainty regarding a number of mental health presentations to Australian EDs. It is known that ED triage nurses need to care for patients with mental illness presenting at the ED until a clinician arrives. This is a serious concern for nurses at these departments at they are faced with challenges while making decisions that are in alignment with principles of optimal quality care delivery. A better triage environment would possibly provide better positions to triage nurses at ED to care for patients. The researchers of the present paper had the prime focus on understanding the relation between emergency triage environment and the experience of nurses who are compelled to care for patients suffering from mental conditions. For ensuring that the research paper is comprehensive and provides the readers with sufficient background information, the researchers have attempted to present the background information and past literary work on the same topic. The literature review of an article aims at identifying the gaps in existing literature. The sole purpose of the literature review is to highlight the areas that have not been addressed in previous research and need immediate attention (Parahoo, 2014). The present article, however, does not have a section on identified gaps in existing literature. The researchers in here have failed to present the particular areas that have remained unexplored in previous literature, presenting a limitation to the literature review. Nevertheless, the re searchers were successful in setting up the stage for the present study, and the research aim was accurately outlined. The objective of the research to be undertaken was to undertake an in-depth exploration of the issues pertaining to triage assessment and suitable milieu required for managing it. Methods: Research design According to Nieswiadomy and Bailey (2017), the research design of a study determines whether the findings of the research would be able to address the research questions or not. It is important to decide on the appropriate research design aligned with the research objectives. The study by Broadbent et al., (2014) considered an ethnographic research design to understand the relationship between different aspects of triage environment and concerns and performance of triage nurse in ED. Lewis (2015) highlight that ethnographic research design is advantageous for exploring or finding the influence of a certain phenomena on the concerned participants. The authors further highlight that ethnographic research is valuable for facilitating interaction between different groups of people and observing the association between them. In real settings, such research design permits optimal information collection on the issues and challenges faced by the participants in relation to a certain aspect. The decision to collect data for the research through the interview and open observations was in harmony with the ethnographic research design. It can be considered as a right approach to understand the natural process prevailing in the setting. The research design also had reflexivity imbibed in it as documents were maintained along with field notes for later references. The negative aspect of the research was that the time frame for conducting the study was not sufficient. The research considered the evaluation of one particular aspect from a wider perceptive; interdisciplinary relationship existing between mental health triage nurse and those who are ED triage nurse. Sample and setting The research conducted by Broadbent et al., (2014) contributed to an examination of one particular aspect from the inferences drawn from wider observation ethnographic study. The study setting was a regional hospital situated in Australia having an emergency department with sufficient resources. At this setting, about 4.5% of the patients coming for care services had mental health issues. The patients taking part in the study were 45 qualified professionals apart from one ED nurse working in night and morning shifts and two nurses working in afternoon shifts. The sample and setting were adequately described by the researcher. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling with the aim of conducting an interview of the nurses. As opined by Houser (2016) purposive sampling is beneficial for selecting a sample that is a representation of the broader population of interest. There are, however, certain points of limitation presented in the sampling method. The hospital setting had lim ited number of patients coming in with a mental illness. It would have been desirable if the flow of patients suffering from mental health disorder was more, thereby augmenting the research validity (Merriam Tisdell, 2015). Data collection Houser (2016) advised that validity of qualitative research is to be established through analysis of the study from multidimensional perspectives. This enables identification of any underlying inconsistencies in the research. Triangulation is the best method for maintaining validity (Caretr et al., 2014). In the present research, these techniques were adhered to. Informal and formal semi-structured interviews, participant observation and examination of field notes and documents were the aspects of triangulation. Procedures The key strength of the research under scrutiny lies in the fact that the focus of the researchers was on extracting in-depth data. The richness of data was also beneficial. The participant observation led to the collection of data related to the extent to which triage practice environment influences triage nurse practice. The interview method was a promising opportunity to contextualize the data. It formed the basis for understanding the issues faced by the triage nurses at the time of patient assessment. Enhancement of trustworthiness The trustworthiness and credibility of research are reflected from the proficiency of the researchers carrying out the study (Nieswiadomy Bailey, 2017). In the present case, the researchers had a similar interest in mental health care services and had sufficient knowledge on the concerned subject. Further, the decision to use both interview method and participant observation renders credibility. The trustworthiness of the data collection is reflected from the emphasis given on responses of triage nurses and operational efficiency. Results: Data analysis A thematic approach was utilized for the data analysis step. Since the data collected was wide, other approaches could have made the process of analyzing it much more difficult and complex. Since the study was an exploratory one, highlighting the perceptions of the triage nurses, thematic analysis allowed the researchers to bring into limelight the themes underpinning the data extracted. According to Maltby et al., (2014) thematic analysis is useful for providing a comprehensive research result addressing the research questions. Moreover, systematic inductive method reduced the chances of bias. Theoretical coding and continual comparison by the three authors in a separate and independent manner was justified (Parahoo, 2014). Findings The study under examination gave rise to themes such as client management, triage assessment, and triage environment. It is easier for a reader to understand the study findings if the same are presented in an organized manner (Day et al., 2017). The categorization into the themes was therefore effective. While reflecting on the ability to capture the meaning of the collected data, it can be commented that a summary of the elaborated feelings and experiences of the nurses were presented addressing the research aims. For instance, the study revealed that non-sound attenuating ceiling in the triage area is responsible for decreasing the ability to engage in a private conversation. Such attribute also hampers the control over movement and has a negative influence on the decision making procedure. The reliability and consistency of the result of the study are apparent from the research conducted by Craig et al., (2016) highlighting the fact that environmental context and resource makes an influence on documenting, screening, and restructuring behavioral changes. Further, the practice environment was found to affect ED triage assessment process in nurses. Lastly, the study indicated that the practice environment has a deep impact on ED triage assessment process of nurses. In summary, it can be stated that the research was helpful in identifying the architectural aspects related to the triage area that has a profound impact in clinical settings. But what remains a point of criticism is that confrontational arguments have not been presented for supporting or refuting the outcomes of the study. Summary assessment and conclusion The research paper put forward by Broadbent et al., (2014) was a valuable one as it presented accurately the concept that architectural environment of the ED triage area is to be considered as a key factor acting as a challenge for triage nurses while caring out assessment and delivering optimal quality care. Data collected during the research highlighted that a nurse working in the triage area needs to consider the environmental characteristics as they act as a barrier in developing a therapeutic relationship with patients. The findings of this study are reliable and credible since other researchers have undertaken an evaluation of the data and rigorous comparison before coming to the conclusion (Tappen, 2015). The limitation of the study that impairs the transferability of the research findings in different settings is the sample size. In the present case, the sample size was too small. Further, cultural, historic and social links were pointed out as factors behind triage assessmen t. Nevertheless, the study has been a useful one to gain knowledge of the process by which nursing practice can witness development in the triage area. The meaningful insights received can be used as the foundation for future research on the same context with special reference to triage area nursing. Relevance to nursing practice and case scenario The research article put forward by Broadbent et al., (2014) was considered for reviewing for solving the issues faced in the case scenario. The scenario relates to the concern that individuals suffering from mental illness seek help and care from the professionals of the ED in the first place. The challenge lies in the fact that the EDs do not have the sufficient resource, both human and non-human, for managing the increased number of patients presenting to the ED with each passing year. In such a scenario, the issue relates to the privacy of the patients having diverse mental health issues and safety of the individuals as well. The research undertaken by Broadbent et al., (2014) is an appropriate ray of light that would guide authorities to solve the arising issues since it deals with the concept that triage nurses are to be appointed at the ED for addressing needs of patients coming in with mental health conditions. The primary implication of the inferences drawn from the study is that a suitable triage environment would serve as the resolution to privacy issues of the patients as well as the safety concerns. Respect for patient values can be demonstrated by eliminating all sources of distraction from the triage area. A noise-free area that also has no barriers for movement would be suitable since the nurses would be in a position to communicate closely with the patient. The competency and skills of the triage nurses can also witness advancement if communication is strong and a suitable environment supports their need for concentration. Enhanced decision making power would be the key advantage for the nurses as they would be better able to make significant clinical decisions. At this juncture, it is to be noted that the results contributed by the study is not suitable for utilization in informed, evidence-based practice since it did not consider researching about the feelings and experiences of the patients. The prime focus of the study was on the triage nurses, and their viewpoints were only discussed. There is an urgency to carry out further research on the experiences of the patients in the triage area. This would act as the foundational base for coming up with strategies for providing comprehensive care to these patients. More novice recommendations would come up in due course of research on the same field that is precious. References Australasian Journal (2017).Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal. [online] Journals.elsevier.com. Available at: https://www.journals.elsevier.com/australasian-emergency-nursing-journal [Accessed 13 Oct. 2017]. Broadbent, M., Moxham, L., Dwyer, T. (2014). Implications of the emergency department triage environment on triage practice for clients with a mental illness at triage in an Australian context.Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal,17(1), 23-29. DOI: 0.1016/j.aenj.2013.11.002 Carter, N., Bryant-Lukosius, D., DiCenso, A., Blythe, J., Neville, A. J. (2014, September). The use of triangulation in qualitative research. InOncology nursing forum(Vol. 41, No. 5). Craig, L. E., McInnes, E., Taylor, N., Grimley, R., Cadilhac, D. A., Considine, J., Middleton, S. (2016). Identifying the barriers and enablers for a triage, treatment, and transfer clinical intervention to manage acute stroke patients in the emergency department: a systematic review using the theoretical domains framework (TDF).Implementation Science,11(1), 157. DOI: 10.1186/s13012-016-0524-1 Day, J., Lindauer, C., Parks, J., Scala, E. (2017). Exploring the Best Practices of Nursing Research Councils in Magnet Organizations: Findings From a Qualitative Research Study.Journal of Nursing Administration,47(5), 253-258. DOI: 10.1097/NNA.0000000000000475. Houser, J. (2016).Nursing research: Reading, using and creating evidence. Jones Bartlett Learning. Jelinek, G. A., Weiland, T. J., Mackinlay, C., Gerdtz, M., Hill, N. (2013). Knowledge and confidence of Australian emergency department clinicians in managing patients with mental health-related presentations: findings from a national qualitative study.International journal of emergency medicine,6(1), 2. DOI: 10.1186/1865-1380-6-2 Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches.Health promotion practice,16(4), 473-475. DOI: 10.1177/1524839915580941 Maltby, J., Williams, G., McGarry, J., Day, L. (2014).Research methods for nursing and healthcare. Routledge. Merriam, S. B., Tisdell, E. J. (2015).Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. John Wiley Sons. Nieswiadomy, R. M., Bailey, C. (2017).Foundations of nursing research. Pearson. Parahoo, K. (2014).Nursing research: principles, process and issues. Palgrave Macmillan. Tappen, R. M. (2015).Advanced nursing research. Jones Bartlett Publishers.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Life in Japanese Internment Camp free essay sample

The evacuees produced own food and other products for themselves. II. The evacuees adapted to their new environment by creating means of joy and happiness. A. The internees played games and sports. B. The internees made use of arts and music to create joy. C. The internees, especially women, enjoyed the freedom from having to do housework. D. The internees continued with what they did outside the barbed wire. III. The internees had no privacy and were always reminded of the fact that they are being controlled and supervised. A. Everywhere, they are surrounded by factors that force them to acknowledge the fact that they are being interned such as barbed wire and soldiers. B. The lack of privacy can be shown during meal time. C. The structure of the camps are meant to give the internees no private time. IV. The internees lost relationship with people around them. A. The internees lost relationship with their families. We will write a custom essay sample on Life in Japanese Internment Camp or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page B. The internees lost relationship with their village people. . C. The internment forced the internees to lose the traditional relationship etween Issei and Nisei. Conclusion The Unimaginable: The Life in Japanese American Internment Camp World War II was a time of mass hatred and unnecessary sufferings of innocents. This belief is, in most part, based off of the establishment of Jewish concentration camp for the Holocaust. However, that is not the whole picture. Japanese Americans in the United States of America were forcefully moved to concentration camps, what they called relocation camps, and lost all their possessions just because they looked like the citizens of Japan who attacked the U. S. in December 7th, 1941. These Japanese Americans, men, women, and babies, had to suffer the consequences of the action taken by the people on the other side of the world just because of their appearance and ethnicity. During the internment, even though the Japanese Americans were able to adapt to their new environment, the Japanese American internment camps robbed the evacuees of their basic rights. The evacuees adapted to their new environment by establishing communities and creating joy within the harsh conditions. Despite so, the camps took away the internees’ rights to have privacy and forced them to lose relationship with people they love and care. Since the 1880s, the Japanese came to United States of America for sugar and pineapple crops in Hawaii (Fremon 12). By 1900, there were almost 25,000 Japanese Americans, including Issei, first generation, and Nisei, Issei’s children, in the Pacific Coast (12). However, more and more anti-Japanese groups including the Japanese Laundry League formed as Japanese succeeded in their American lives (13). Starting from there, the Japanese Americans had to face discrimination from every corner of their lives. In 1906, San Francisco removed Japanese students from white school and made them attend the segregated school in Chinatown (13). This problem was resolved by the Gentlemen’s agreement between America and Japan in which Japan agreed to stop Japanese immigration and American agreed to stop the segregated school system (14). Facing discrimination, the Issei and Nisei still did well; only 1600 Issei owned farms, but they produced almost 30%-35% of all fruits or vegetables in California (18). They united with each other and helped each other live in the U. S. A. Continuing with the discrimination from whites and the endurance of that discrimination, Japanese population was less than one-tenth of U. S. population, and they were not a threat to American neighbors by number (20). However, the Japanese Americans’ lives were diminished by the Japanese aircraft attack of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii in December 7, 1941 (Grapes 12). In addition to the already-existing Japanese discrimination, the Pearl Harbor attack and the accusation of â€Å"fifth column† activity by Japanese triggered the anti-Asian sentiment (12). The attack of Pearl Harbor made the Japanese Americans the target of Americans; a few hours after the attack, about 3000 suspected spies, mostly Japanese Americans, were arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (Yancey 25). By the night of December 7, 1942, hundreds of people were in custody (Fremon 22). Also, on December 8, 1942, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt spoke to Congress for a Declaration of War against Japan (7). Then, on February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which was one of the greatest violations of civil rights in American history (31). This order, recommended by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and General John DeWitt, gave the army the right to â€Å"relocate all persons of Japanese lineage as well as others who might threaten the security of the country† (Yancey 29). With this order, more than 112,000 Japanese Americans, treated as traitors, were evacuated from the western coast in 1942 (Fremon 8). After the passage of the order, DeWitt issued first proclamation on March 2, 1942 which â€Å"called for two military zones: zone 1 covered the western third of California, Oregon, and Washington, and the southern quarter of Arizona; Zone 2 covered remainder of four states† (34). Japanese Americans had to leave the zone by direct and indirect force, and the government passed the law which gave the military authority to move Nisei and Issei (34). Along with that, the Executive Order 9012, passed in March, created the War Relocation Authority (WRA) (35). The WRA’s job was to take charge of the internees after they were moved to the camps (35). The Japanese American Citizen League (JACL) tried to fight against it. However, because it was too young and they were afraid that Americans would think they were really spies if they won’t cooperate, JACL decided to follow WRA (36). Furthermore, in â€Å"March 27, DeWitt issued Public Proclamation Number 4 which forced persons of Japanese ancestry to stay in military zone 1 after the end of the month, and on March 27, DeWitt issued Exclusion Order Number 1 in which persons of Japanese ancestry were moved from Washington to camp in Manzanar, California† (37). During the war, there were more than 100 evacuation orders and, through this, the innocent Japanese Americans suffered the consequences (37). Despite the abrupt news of internment, the Japanese Americans managed to quickly adapt to the newly provided environment. One of the ways that the Japanese Americans adapted to their new environment was by forming communities at the camps. This is one of the first things that the evacuees did at the camps, and they, with WRA, did so by establishing schools. One of every four evacuees was a child, â€Å"so college-educated Nisei began organizing schools, some of the first institutions to be established in the camps† (Yancey Life in a Japanese 53). On September 15, 1942, nursery and elementary schools opened in Manzanar Camp, a relocation camp in Manzanar, under the leadership of Dr. Genevieve W. Carter, a female superintendent of education for the camp (Cooper 31). The classes began in assembly centers, led by inexperienced, but eager volunteers. After the WRA took over, it hired Caucasian teachers to live and work in the camps (Yancey Life in a Japanese 54). However, not many came to the camp because the pay was low, $1,620 a year. At Manzanar Camp, along with the 1,100 elementary school students, there were almost 1,400 high school students. The high school opened in September 28 and â€Å"it filled block seven: the mess hall, recreation building, and all fourteen barracks† (Cooper 31). There were as many as sixty students in a classroom (Cooper 31). At first, the classes did not have supplies such as blackboards, books, chairs, tables, and lab equipment (Yancey Life in a Japanese 55). However, many eagerly studied and thousands graduated high school in the camp and went to college or professional schools (Yancey Life in a Japanese 55). With the establishment of the school system, the evacuees got used to their new environment little by little. Along with the school system, the establishment of self-government helped to shape the new community in the camp. Each camp had its own Caucasian administrator and staff who were businesslike individuals who tried to overn fairly and give residents as much freedom as possible. One of the examples of this is when director Harry Stafford allowed the Minidoka, Idaho, Nisei baseball team to go to Idaho Falls to participate in the state championship. Also, at Manzanar, a camp official said, ‘The back gate of the camp was often open; the farm hands went freely in and out and [director Ralp h] Merritt looked with lenience upon recreational sorties [outings], since they were no danger to military security’† (Yancey The Internment 53). However, the Caucasian administration lacked the ability to control every aspect of the large camp. Thus, the evacuees elected or appointed spokespersons, or block managers, usually respected Issei, who linked the internees and staff (Yancey The Internment 53). These managers â€Å"supervised grounds maintenance, ensured that everyone had necessary provisions, and passed on official WRA announcements† (Yancey The Internment 53). In addition to the administrator and the block manager, there were community councils, mostly young adult Nisei who spoke English and were Americanized. These people worked on jobs such as policy making and dealing with mild infractions of the law (54). The fact that the evacuees organized themselves into different levels or ranks show that they are willing to adapt to the new camp life. Finally, the evacuees established community through producing their own food and other products. At first, the WRA took responsibility of feeding the evacuees and they did so by giving the evacuees American food (Yancey The Internment 51). One internee said, â€Å"They issued us army mess kits, the round metal kind that fold over, and plopped in scoops of canned Vienna sausage, canned string beans, [and] steamed rice that had been cooked too long† (Yancey The Internment 51). Then, when the evacuees did not finish their portion because the food was too bad, the authorities decided to cut down the portion; the authorities thought the evacuees did so because the portion was too large (51). In response, the internees took the responsibility. The farmers and laborers plowed, planted, and produced crops such as â€Å"cabbage, squash, tomatoes, and soybeans (51). These crops they produced are the main ingredient for most of the Japanese diet (51). In addition, some raised cattle, poultry, and hogs, and with these, the menus became more various and the life in camp became much more tolerable. Along with food production, the evacuees worked in food processing; the internees at Manzanar made their own soy sauce, and tofu-making plants were a part of each camp (51). To obtain jars for glassware, they ate great amount of peanut butter (52). By doing so, the evacuees were able to establish small repair shops, beauty parlors, and dry-goods stores which resembled communities from outside the barbed wire (52). As the internees gained more authority over some aspects of their lives, such as diet, they were able to establish their own communities at the camps. Another way that the evacuees adapted to their new environment was by making their lives more enjoyable by actually creating happiness in the situation they were given. One way to create happiness was through sports. Aside from the common belief that the internees could only sleep, eat, and work, sports were one of the activities that took the time of many evacuees (Fremon 49). Even in normal society, sports are used to entertain both players and the audience, and the fact that sports existed at the camps show how the evacuees also tried to create some entertainment at the camps. Some of the sports they played include basketball, volleyball, and sumo wrestling with baseball being the most popular (Fremon 50). For example, a baseball team, Livingston Dodgers, brought their uniforms and equipment to the camp and one of the players, Gilbert Tanji, said that he actually liked camp better than outside because there was more competition (50). In fact, there were as many as 100 teams active at one time at some centers and they ranged from children to Issei in their sixties (Yancey The Internment 56). The big number shows how popular sports were and how great people’s longing for entertainment and joy was at the camps. These teams competed against each other and some, the Hunt team, even went out to the state championship (Yancey The way 62). Indoor sports were present too though they were limited to those that took little space like â€Å"Ping-Pong, judo, boxing and badminton† (Yancey The Internment 56). Also, by the end of 1943, the evacuees were occasionally permitted to leave the grounds so that hiking and swimming became popular pastimes (56). From these sports, the internees were able to create happiness and enjoy the life in camp more. In addition to sports, which were mostly for men, women tried to make their lives at camp better by enjoying the freedom they were provided. They were freed from the obligation of the traditional role and filled that time with what they actually wished to do. Before entering the camp, women had their time filled with unending hard work such as cleaning, shopping, cooking, sewing, and more (Yancey Life in a Japanese 53). Because they had to help both their children and their husbands when they were in need, they had almost no leisure time to sit and talk with friends (53). However, their lives changed after they got in the camps. They did not have to clean too much given that the houses were single-room apartments, did not have to prepare meals given that they were served three times a day, did not have to clean much given that the government provided some clothes, and did not have to care about paying bills too much given that there were only few bills to be paid (Yancey Life in a Japanese 53). With the new free time, women were able to develop friendships and take care of themselves more often (Yancey Life in a Japanese 53). They enjoyed the newly earned leisure time and began developing hobbies or new interests at the camps (Yancey Life in a Japanese 53). Therefore, women were able to enjoy the life at the camps with their acceptance to the new leisure time. Furthermore, the continuing of activities from outside the barbed wire also provided happiness for the evacuees. One example of these activities is the gardening (Fremon 59). The internees who enjoyed gardening and who continued to do so in the camps took great pride in making their barren surroundings as beautiful as possible (Yancey Life in a Japanese 61). By working together to create large gardens and landscaping parks that required constant care, the internees were able to spend time with their favorite actions. In general, people forget their current situation when they concentrate on an activity they enjoy very much (Yancey Life in a Japanese 61). With these gardeners, the Gila Camp, located in Arizona desert, turned into a beautiful community with lawns, trees, and vegetable gardens (Yancey Life in a Japanese 31). At other camps, there were small gardens planted by the evacuees in front of their shelters (Fremon 60). Similar to gardening, the farmers took great pride in products they produced (Yancey Life in a Japanese 59). At Manzanar camp, the farmers cultivated almost fifteen hundred acres of land and at Gila River camp, they cultivated over seven thousand (Yancey Life in a Japanese 59-60). The crops ranged from vegetables, including cabbage, squash, and tomatoes, to field crops such as soybeans and guayule (Yancey Life in a Japanese 60). The farmers at Manzanar camp also provided the internees with fresh apples and pears by reviving abandoned an orchard from a previous owner (Yancey Life in a Japanese 60). By doing gardening and cultivating crops, the internees felt proud and created joy inside the barbed wire. Lastly, the internees became happy was through arts and music. At the camps, former musicians formed bands and orchestras and performed music from classical music to the â€Å"jitterbug for high school dances† (Yancey Life in a Japanese 62). Also, schools embraced music by having classes such as choir classes and performing concerts (Houston and Houston 90). At the camps, there were, as examples provided, music, the schools performed in concerts, assemblies, and talent shows. With these activities, the internees were kept busy and distracted from thinking about the fact that they are guiltlessly arrested (Houston and Houston 90). Despite the Japanese Americans’ attempts to adapt to their new environment, the camps continuously reminded the internees that they are being arrested. During the camp life, it was almost impossible for the internees to forget about the fact that they were being arrested and were always being watched. The relocation centers were surrounded by barbed wire fences, guard towers with machine guns, and searchlights (Yancey Life in a Japanese 47). Though they were just barbed wire fences, the mindset and the feeling of being trapped were very much present within the existence of the fences. With these fences, along with the machine guns and searchlights, the evacuees must have realized that they were being trapped every second. Furthermore, most of the relocation camps were located in desolate regions of the country, far from cities, highways, and railroads. Also, they were built at the most unproductive land; the Jerome and Rohwer camps were built on â€Å"Arkansas swampland infested with malarial mosquitoes† (Yancey Life in a Japanese 46). At some camps, the temperature went up high as 106 degrees Fahrenheit: Topaz center (Yancey Life in a Japanese 46). The climate was so bad that one internee said, â€Å"The desert was bad enough The constant storms loaded with sand and dust made it worse Down in our hearts we cried and cursed this government every time when we were showered with dust† (Yancey Life in a Japanese 47). With the weather so disastrous, the internees were kept reminded of the fact that they are at relocation camps and that their lives had changed because of the internment. With the continuous reminder that they are being interned by their own government, the internees faced the lack of privacy. One of the evidence that the life in camps showed lack of privacy was the meal time. The meals were provided three times a day, as mentioned above, and they were communal (Yancey Life in a Japanese 44). The internees ate at noisy cafeteria-style mess halls where people stood in long lines and ate at big tables (Cooper 25). One of the evacuees said, â€Å"It wasn’t like having a meal made at home with loving hands† (Cooper 25). For most Japanese people, mealtime was the center of their family scene, but after they came to the internment camps, they lost the big part of family private time Houston and Houston 30). Therefore, the mealtimes show that the evacuees lacked privacy they used to enjoy. In addition to the mealtime, the whole building structure of the camps prevented the evacuees from having any private time. First of all, the houses were very small with one-room apartment measuring twenty by twenty five feet where, in most cases, two families had to live (Cooper 25). Thus, for every apartment, there were about eight to ten people who did not know each other. They had sleep while â€Å"listening to the heavy snoring of strange bedfellow† (Cooper 25). Not only were the evacuees forced to sleep in small rooms that looked like â€Å"chicken coops† where â€Å"there were no ceilings so that if a baby cried 150 feet down on the other end of this long line of cubicles, the crying could be heard throughout the entire building,† the fact that they had to share even that room with other strangers made the condition seem inhumane (Alonso 40). Also, the camps were built in a way that even the bathrooms and showers had no dividers (Alonso 41). The toilets were back-to-back down the middle of the room and for the internees who enjoyed the luxury of hot, relaxing bath before, this was very shocking (Yancey Life in a Japanese 44). One woman felt like the camps were dehumanizing the internees and said that one â€Å"cannot deport 110,000 people unless [he] has stopped seeing individuals† (Alonso 42). Regarding the information, one can undoubtedly state that the internees were given no right to have privacy or even be humans at the camps. Lastly, the Japanese Americans had to suffer loss of relationship with the people they love. The internment forced the Japanese Americans to lose relationships with their families. For the Japanese Americans, it is their culture to eat together and have mealtime as center of their family scene. However, after they were arrested, they were forced to eat at the mess halls where it was almost impossible to bring families together. For example, the older members of family, mostly grandparents, had to get their food delivered because they could not walk three blocks three times a day. Also, children began eating with their friends instead of their family (Houston and Houston 30-31). After continuing with this kind of life for few years, the Japanese Americans collapsed in the end. One of the internees said that â€Å"whatever dignity or feeling of filial strength we may have known before December 1941 was lost, and we did not recover it until many years after the war† (Houston and Houston 32). Having a good family relationship is one of the key points in living a happy life, but the internment forced the Japanese Americans to lose their rights to do so. In addition to family relationships, the Japanese Americans lost relationships with their beloved neighbors and village people. Mary Tsukamoto, one of the internees, and her family had to experience separation with their beloved community people. Their community, consisting of mostly Japanese Americans, went through hardships, such as the Depression, and were very close to each other. They laughed, cried, and mourned together. However, they had to be separated when the internment of Japanese Americans were announced; the line that divided people into different camps was drawn in the middle of the community. This was such a big shock that one of the community member said, â€Å"We’ll never forget the shock and grief and the sorrow on top of everything else that was happening to us† (Grapes 132-133). Because of the internment, the Japanese Americans had to give up on their relationship with people they love, and this is something that should not have happened just because of their ethnicity and appearances. Lastly, the traditional relationship between the Issei and Nisei was lost because of the internment. Before the internment, the young Issei listened nd respected the older and experienced Nisei. However, at the camps, the Issei began forming gangs because they did not have to help their parents after school anymore. Not only that, they used the fact that they are United States citizens and that they outnumber Nisei to overpower them. In response, Nisei generation ridiculed the Issei for having powerless citizenship (Fremon 64-65). From these, it is apparent that the Nisei and Issei lost their traditional relationship and some internees never regained the relationship even when the internment was over. After all, the Japanese Americans adjusted to their new environment and at the same time, suffered consequences of the attack of the Pearl Harbor. They adjusted by forming new communities and creating joy, and they suffered the lack of privacy and loss of relationships because of the internment. On December 18, 1944, the United States Army finally declared that the evacuation of Japanese Americans is over. However, the order formally came into effect on January 2, 1945 (Alonso 96). Even though they were free from internment, they still had to suffer the aftermath of the internment through rebuilding trust, wealth, and communities; in some cases, they were still treated as if they are threat to the American community (Alonso 97). Therefore, in 1948, the federal government passed the Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act which â€Å"allowed those who were in internment camps to file claims with the federal government, asking the United States government to pay back Japanese Americans for the money or property they lost† (Alonso 97). However, this Act had many problems. The Act was passed too late for it to help many Japanese Americans and the lost financial papers and records made the Japanese Americans to defend their lost properties. Also, the process for the repay too long, while the government had to spend almost three times the amount to fight for it (Alonso 97-98). Most of all, the Act did not pay the real price for the properties and the kind of emotional sufferings (Alonso 98). In order to prevent events like this to happen again, President Nixon, in 1971, signed a law that required â€Å"action by Congress before any order like Executive Order 9066 could ever be issued again† (Alonso 99). Later, in 1988, the Japanese Americans felt like they deserved real reparations for their sufferings. Therefore, on August 10, 1988, against many oppositions, the bill for reparation was passed. The bill said that the U. S. government was wrong on suspecting the Japanese Americans of spying and their actions were too extreme. Also, the bill â€Å"promised twenty thousand dollars tax free to each prisoner of the internment camps who was alive when the bill passed† (Alonso 104-105). Even though the Japanese Americans Internment was officially over, the impact of the unjustness will remain forever, so this type of events should never happen in the United States ever again. Works Cited Alonso, Karen. Korematsu V. United States. Springfield: Enslow Publishers, 1998. Cooper, Michael. Remembering Manzanar: Life In a Japanese Relocation Camp. New York: Clarion Books, 2002. Fremon, David. Japanese-American Internment. Springfield: Enslow Publishers, 1996. Grapes, Bryan. Japanese Americans Internment Camps. San Diego: Greenhaven, 2001. Houston, Jeanne Wakatsuki and James Houston. Farewell To Manzanar: A True Story Of Japanese American Experience Of During And After The World War II Internment. Boston: San Francisco Book Company and Houghton Mifflin Book, 1973. Yancey, Diane. Life in a Japanese American Internment Camp. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1998. Yancey, Diane. The Internment of the Japanese. San Diego: Lucent Books, 2001.